Yemen suffers from extremely deteriorating health conditions and the health situation in it cannot be described as less than catastrophic, as a result of the war that has been going on for nearly six years between government forces supported by Saudi Arabia and the UAE and the Houthi militia supported by Iran, who control a number of governorates, including the capital, Sana’a. Since September 2014, the health disaster in Yemen is not limited to the Coronavirus “Covid-19”, as there are epidemics, viruses and diseases that have spread since 2016. In recent years, Yemen ranked last in the Arab and World Health Index.
There are many epidemics, viruses and diseases that Yemenis have been struggling with since the war began in 2014, especially in areas with high poverty rates and no health centers available. Yemen cannot be described as less than catastrophic.
In addition to the difficult living situation in Yemen that the Yemenis endure, they found themselves during the year 2018 AD facing another epidemic to suffer another, more severe suffering with deadly epidemics, with another epidemic, “Leishmania epidemic”, in conjunction with the collapse of the health sector in the country, the deterioration of medical services and the imposition of a group The “Houthi” measures are described as “arbitrary” against international organizations, and the health situation in Yemen cannot be described as less than catastrophic.
The “leishmania” epidemic spread in Yemen in 2018, and is considered one of the diseases that spread in many countries of the world, especially the hot and temperate countries, and it is one of the diseases that affect animals such as: “rodents, foxes, dogs, and transmits infection to humans.”
There are thousands of people infected with this epidemic in the Yemeni countryside, and Yemen comes in an important location that was hidden in the global epidemic map.
The “Leishmania” epidemic has been endemic to Yemen of all three types, hidden from the global epidemiological maps of this disease.
The size of the “leishmaniasis” epidemic in Yemen greatly exceeds the size of its spread in some Arab countries and some tropical and sub-tropical countries in which the epidemic is famous for its settlement.
The total number of leishmaniasis cases in Yemen has exceeded the 200,000 mark, of whom 90% are women and children under the age of seventeen years, 30% have the visceral type, 49% have the mucous type, and 48% have the skin type. Victims of the “visceral leishmaniasis” epidemic die without diagnosis.
Among the most important complications that a “leishmaniasis” patient is exposed to is poor diagnosis, delay or lack of treatment, the most important of which are death, deformities, disabilities, and the social, aesthetic and psychological stigma that accompanies the patient or the patient, preventing him from practicing his social life normally and the patient’s reluctance, for example, to marry in many cases.
In this context, it must be noted that the use of folk remedies such as: “freshness” and “traps” and other traditional methods used by patients who are unable to access medical services leads to many chronic complications and deformities.
The “Leishmania” epidemic is caused by a small, opportunistic parasite that is single-celled and transmits it from humans to humans or from animals such as dogs, cats, foxes and mice to humans, a small fly called the sand fly, which is one third of the size of the known “mongoose”. This fly breeds in remote villages, especially in cracked walls and between the timber of the roofs. In animal pens and valleys, they are active at night after sunset and until sunrise, and they fly by jumping at low altitudes without a little sound, they bite you silently and leave after the parasite implants into the skin while eating its blood meal from you.
The epidemic of “leishmaniasis” is a group of parasitic diseases caused by a number of protozoan species of the genus Leishmania. The manifestations of the disease vary from skin lesions that spontaneously heal “cutaneous leishmaniasis” to a fatal systemic disease “visceral leishmaniasis”.
It is a disease of zoonotic origin, and the natural reservoir for most parasite species are different types of animals. Each type of leishmaniasis has a spectrum of reservoir animals. Accordingly, leishmaniasis is divided epidemiologically into “cutaneous and visceral” leishmaniasis, and “cutaneous and visceral” leishmaniasis.
The World Health Organization classifies “leishmaniasis” among the neglected diseases.